Central Forest Spine

What is CFS?

Malaysia’s critical forest landscape

Get to know the Central Forest Spine, the green lungs of Peninsular Malaysia which houses the world’s oldest forest. Deemed as a megadiverse country, our forest is home to many unique species and wildlife such as the national icon, the Malayan Tiger.

What is CFSMP?

A strategic action plan to conserve the CFS

The Central Forest Spine Master Plan distinguishes the main forest complexes and identifies vital ecological corridors, both primary and secondary, in a single action plan. Learn more about its vision to reconnect and improve the overall quality of Peninsular Malaysia’s segregated forests.

Central Forest Spine(CFS)

The forests within Peninsular Malaysia have many names. Officially, it is called the Central Forest Spine. Other times, it is the oldest forest on earth while some people call it Peninsular Malaysia’s Green Lung – due to its ability in storing carbon from being released into our atmosphere. But that is just the tip of the iceberg. The Central Forest Spine provides sanctuary for endangered species such as the Malayan Tiger, Malayan Sun bear, Malayan Tapir, Asian Elephants and many more. As a part of the Sundaland biodiversity hotspot, it harbours a myriad of identified wildlife, plant and microorganism species contributing to our country’s megadiverse status.

It also serves irreplaceable ecosystem services such as water supply, climate regulation, soil protection and eliviates flood risks among many others. It also allows us to harvest its produce. Timber and non-timber forest products contribute to the economy while supporting communities that live there. But oftentimes, its kindness is taken for granted. Decades of uncontrolled development, deforestation and harvesting have led to irreversible damages.

Acknowledging this, the Malaysian Government conceptualised the Central Forest Spine and its importance in the 1st National Plan, marking it as our national asset. It is divided into four main forest complexes and covers a total area of 5.3 million hectares, encompassing over eight states; Pahang, Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Selangor, Kelantan, Kedah, and Negeri Sembilan.

Source: IC-CFS Project Document

Central Forest Spine Master Plan (CFSMP)

The establishment of the Central Forest Spine Master Plan (CFSMP) was a direct response to the conception of the Central Forest Spine. It introduces 37 ecological corridors within the northern and southern parts of the peninsula that are known as vital linkages for the four main forest complexes in the CFS and provides actionable measures, including the costs of maintaining and enhancing these linkages. It is the brainchild of the federal government and is implemented by the state government with a timeframe of 15 years following the 10th, 11th and 12th five-year Malaysia Plans. It is expected to cost the Malaysian Government over USD 257million. Currently, over MYR 97 million have been allocated for the CFSMP. 

The Master Plan aims to increase the integrity and connectivity between the four major complexes through the “Ecological Linkages” that bridge segregated forestations. The plan redefines the linkages into two groupings – Primary Linkages and Secondary Linkages.

Primary Linkages

The Primary Linkages within the CFS is identified as a linear corridor, which connects two separated forests to re-establish its connectivity for a continuous link in the Central Forest Spine.

These linkages allow wildlife, genetic resources, and ecological functions to move freely between the two areas. Most of these areas are located between crucial forest blocks, within narrow stretches that are usually untouched by urban developments. They require major interventions such as land acquisitions and the construction of viaducts instead of common highways.

Secondary Linkages

Secondary linkages are known to be the complementary linkages, where they are established in more degraded lands that would need to maintain a degree of connectivity between forested areas.

These linkages take the form of stepping stones that replicate the riparian corridors – a small patch of restored vegetation that filters and allows movement for small mammals, birds and insects (and even larger ones) between landscapes.

Adult Malayan tiger entering the pool

Safeguarding Our Malayan Tigers

Part of our integrative effort is the protection of tiger populations and their habitat within our pilot sites, which previously aligns with The National Tiger Conservation Action Plan (NTCAP) and currently, the Save Our Malayan Tiger Campaign. Both plan aims to tackle the worrying decline of tiger populations within the Central Forest Spine through integrative effort and support from the government, private agencies and the public.

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Primary Linkages

Viaduct at CFS Ecological Corridor Sungai Yu, Pahang
Viaduct at CFS Ecological Corridor Gerik, Perak
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A-PL 1 : Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak (Main Range) – Royal Belum State Park, Perak (Main Range)

A-PL 2 : Padang Chong Forest Reserve, Kedah (Bintang Hijau) – Sungai Kuak Forest Reserve, Perak (Main Range)

A-PL 3 : Kenderong Forest Reserve, Perak (Bintang Hijau) – Bintang Hijau (Hulu Perak) Forest Reserve, Perak (Bintang Hijau)

A-PL 4 : Bintang Hijau Larut Matang Forest Reserve, Perak – Bintang Hijau Kuala Kangsar Forest Reserve, Perak

A-PL 5 : Bukit Larut Forest Reserve, Perak– Bubu Forest Reserve, Perak

C-PL 1 : Tanum Forest Reserve, Pahang (Greater Taman Negara) – Sungai Yu Forest Reserve, Pahang (Main Range)

C-PL 2 : Ulu Jelai Forest Reserve, Pahang (Main Range) – Bukit Bujang Forest Reserve, Pahang – Hulu Lemoi Forest Reserve, Pahang (Main Range)

C-PL 3 : Lesong Forest Reserve, Pahang – Resak Forest Reserve, Pahang

C-PL 4 : Sungai Marong Forest Reserve, Pahang – Bukit Ibam Forest Reserve, Pahang – Lesong Forest Reserve, Pahang

C-PL 5 : Ibam Forest Reserve, Pahang – Kedondong Forest Reserve, Pahang – Pekan Forest Reserve, Pahang – Nenasi Forest Reserve, Pahang

C-PL 6 : Bera Forest Reserve, Pahang – Ibam Forest Reserve, Pahang

D-PL 1 : Lojing Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Sungai Berok Forest Reserve, Kelantan (Main Range)

D-PL3 : Jeli Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Sungai Sator Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Sokortaku Forest Reserve, Kelantan

J-PL 1 : Labis Timur Forest Reserve, Johor – Lenggor Tengah Forest Reserve, Johor – Mersing Forest Reserve, Johor

J-PL 2 : Panti Forest Reserve, Johor – Ulu Sedili Selatan Forest Reserve, Johor

K-PL 1 : Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah – Gunung Inas Forest Reserve, Kedah (Bintang Hijau)

T-PL 1 : Taman Negara, Pahang – Tembat Forest Reserve, Terengganu (Greater Taman Negara)

T-PL 2 : Jerangau Forest Reserve, Terengganu – Jerangau Forest Reserve, Terengganu

Secondary Linkages

These linkages take the form of a stepping stone that assists the movements of small animals over patches of greeneries

A-SL 1 : Bintang Hijau (Hulu Perak) Forest Reserve, Perak – Pepulut Forest Reserve, Perak – Piah Forest Reserve, Perak

A-SL 2 : Bukit Kinta Forest Reserve, Perak – Bujang Melaka Forest Reserve, Perak

A-SL 3 : Bubu Forest Reserve, Perak – Matang Mangroves, Perak

B-SL1 : Raja Musa Forest Reserve, Selangor – Bukit Tarek Forest Reserve, Selangor – Bukit Gading Forest Reserve, Selangor

C-SL 1 : Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang – Benchah Forest Reserve, Pahang – Som Forest Reserve, Pahang – Yong Forest Reserve, Pahang

C-SL 2 : Lepar Forest Reserve, Pahang – Berkelah Forest Reserve, Pahang

C-SL 3 : Chini Forest Reserve, Pahang – Lepar Forest Reserve, Pahang

D-SL 1 : Lebir Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Relai Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Ulu Temiang Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Jentiang Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Serasa Forest Reserve, Kelantan- Gunung Stong State Park, Kelantan

D-SL 2 : Taman Negara, Pahang – Chiku Forest Reserve, Kelantan

D-SL 3 : Chabang Tongkat Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Ulu Sat Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Temangan Forest Reserve, Kelantan

J-SL 1 : Panti Forest Reserve, Johor – Kuala Sedili Forest Reserve, Johor

K-SL 1: Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah – Pedu Forest Reserve, Kedah – Chebar Forest Reserve, Kedah

K-SL 2 : Ulu Muda Forest, Kedah – Rimba Telui Forest Reserve, Kedah

K-SL 3 : Gunung Bongsu Forest Reserve, Kedah – Gunung Inas Forest Reserve, Kedah

N-SL 1 : Triang Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan – Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan

N-SL 2 : Angsi Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan – Beremban Forest Reserve, Negeri Seremban

N-SL 3 : Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan – Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan

T-SL 1 : Taman Negara Forest Complex, Pahang – Terengganu Coast, Terengganu

T-SL 2 : Taman Negara Forest Complex, Pahang – Terengganu Coast 2, Terengganu