Frequently
Asked Question

The concept of Central Forest Spine (CFS) was introduced during the Second National Physical Plan (August 2010) where it was emphasised the need to establish a CFS to form the backbone of the network of Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) in Peninsular Malaysia which comprises four major forest complexes i.e.
i) Titiwangsa Range – Bintang Range – Nakawan Range
ii) Taman Negara – Timur Range
iii) Southeast Pahang, Chini and Bera Wetlands
iv) Endau Rompin Park – Kluang Wildlife Reserve

The CFS Master Plan is divided into two phases, CFS1 and CFS2.  Phase 1 identified 11 Primary Linkages (PLs) and 13 Secondary Linkages (SLs). The CFS1 covers the northern Peninsular Malaysia comprising Kedah, Perak, Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang. 

Under phase 2 are 6PLs and 7 SLs covering the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia i.e. Pahang, Johor Negeri Sembilan and Selangor.

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The Central Forest Spine of Peninsular Malaysia under the Central Forest Spine Master Plan (CFSMP) covers ±5.3 million ha across 8 states namely in Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Kedah, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Johor where 80% of it are Permanent Reserved Forests.

Ecological corridors are conservation areas for biodiversity, particularly for wildlife and where primary and secondary linkages are identified to connect significant forest complexes or forest islands. 

Primary Linkages are areas that have been identified as crucial to the re-establishment of forest connectivity to achieve the main Central Forest Spine link. These are inevitably located between the most important blocks of the forests, catering for the movement of large mammals. Hence, primary linkages are normally linear corridors that are made of unbroken stretches of forested habitats connecting forest islands. 

Secondary linkages are complementary to the primary linkages. These are areas that are unfeasible to create a primary linkage due to physical, land use, biological and socio-economic constraints but which are still important to maintain some level of connectivity between forests. Secondary linkages are usually stepping stones, which are patches of suitable habitats, and meant to be used by small animals, birds and insects.

CFS 1-PLPrimary Linkages Area
A-PL 1Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak (Main Range) – Royal Belum State Park, Perak (Main Range)
A-PL 2Padang Chong Forest Reserve, Kedah (Bintang Hijau) – Sungai Kuak Forest Reserve, Perak (Main Range)
A-PL 3Kenderong Forest Reserve, Perak (Bintang Hijau) – Bintang Hijau (Hulu Perak) Forest Reserve, Perak (Bintang Hijau)
A-PL 4 Bintang Hijau Larut Matang Forest Reserve, Perak – Bintang Hijau Kuala Kangsar Forest Reserve, Perak
A-PL 5Bukit Larut Forest Reserve, Perak– Bubu Forest Reserve, Perak
C-PL 1Tanum Forest Reserve, Pahang (Greater Taman Negara) – Sungai Yu Forest Reserve, Pahang (Main Range)
C-PL 2Ulu Jelai Forest Reserve, Pahang (Main Range) – Bukit Bujang Forest Reserve, Pahang – Hulu Lemoi Forest Reserve, Pahang (Main Range)
D-PL 1Lojing Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Sungai Berok Forest Reserve, Kelantan (Main Range)
D-PL3Jeli Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Sungai Sator Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Sokortaku Forest Reserve, Kelantan
K-PL 1Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah – Gunung Inas Forest Reserve, Kedah (Bintang Hijau)
T-PL 1Taman Negara, Pahang – Tembat Forest Reserve, Terengganu (Greater Taman Negara)
T-PL 2Jerangau Forest Reserve, Terengganu – Jerangau Forest Reserve, Terengganu

CFS 2-PLPrimary Linkages Area
C-PL 3Lesong Forest Reserve, Pahang – Resak Forest Reserve, Pahang
C-PL 4Sungai Marong Forest Reserve, Pahang – Bukit Ibam Forest Reserve, Pahang – Lesong Forest Reserve, Pahang
C-PL 5Ibam Forest Reserve, Pahang – Kedondong Forest Reserve, Pahang – Pekan Forest Reserve, Pahang – Nenasi Forest Reserve, Pahang
C-PL 6Bera Forest Reserve, Pahang – Ibam Forest Reserve, Pahang
J-PL 1Labis Timur Forest Reserve, Johor – Lenggor Tengah, Johor
J-PL 2Panti Forest Reserve, Johor – Ulu Sedili Selatan Forest Reserve, Johor

CFS 1-SLSecondary Linkages (SL)
A-SL 1Bintang Hijau (Hulu Perak) Forest Reserve, Perak – Pepulut Forest Reserve, Perak – Piah Forest Reserve, Perak
A-SL 2Bukit Kinta Forest Reserve, Perak – Bujang Melaka Forest Reserve, Perak
A-SL 3Bubu Forest Reserve, Perak – Matang Mangroves, Perak
C-SL 1Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang – Benchah Forest Reserve, Pahang – Som Forest Reserve, Pahang – Yong Forest Reserve, Pahang
D-SL 1Lebir Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Relai Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Ulu Temiang Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Jentiang Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Serasa Forest Reserve, Kelantan- Gunung Stong State Park, Kelantan
D-SL 2Taman Negara, Pahang – Chiku Forest Reserve, Kelantan
D-SL 3Chabang Tongkat Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Ulu Sat Forest Reserve, Kelantan – Temangan Forest Reserve, Kelantan
K-SL 1Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah – Pedu Forest Reserve, Kedah – Chebar Forest Reserve, Kedah
K-SL 2Ulu Muda Forest, Kedah – Rimba Telui Forest Reserve, Kedah
K-SL 3Gunung Bongsu Forest Reserve, Kedah – Gunung Inas Forest Reserve, Kedah
T-SL 1Taman Negara Forest Complex, Pahang – Terengganu Coast, Terengganu
T-SL 2Taman Negara Forest Complex, Pahang – Terengganu Coast 2, Terengganu

CFS 2-SLSecondary Linkages (SL)
B-SL1Raja Musa Forest Reserve, Selangor – Bukit Tarek Forest Reserve, Selangor – Bukit Gading Forest Reserve, Selangor
C-SL 2Lepar Forest Reserve, Pahang – Berkelah Forest Reserve, Pahang
C-SL 3Chini Forest Reserve, Pahang – Lepar Forest Reserve, Pahang
J-SL 1 Panti Forest Reserve, Johor – Kuala Sedili Forest Reserve, Johor
N-SL 1Triang Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan – Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan
N-SL 2Angsi Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan – Beremban Forest Reserve, Negeri Seremban
N-SL 3 Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan – Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan

An ecological corridor is a way of connecting fragmented habitats. The corridor allows movement between isolated patches of habitat without other disturbances, such as traffic or development. They are avenues along which wide-ranging animals can travel, plants can propagate, genetic interchange can occur, populations can move in response to environmental changes and natural disasters, and threatened species can be replenished from other areas.

Ecological corridors are important in providing forest cover, food, water and protection from dangers and minimal disturbance for the species that use them.

The CFS is home to totally protected species such as the Asian Elephants, Sumatran Rhinoceros, Malayan Tapir, Malayan tiger and Seladang as well as endangered species like Malayan Sun bear, Pangolin, bearded pig, barking deer, serow, etc. 

Pitcher plants, rafflesia, venus flytrap and slipper orchid are some of the protected plants that could be found in the central forest spine.

Protecting our biodiversity is essential in ensuring a healthy and functional ecosystem. Wildlife refers to undomesticated plants and animals as well as organisms that live wild (not introduced by humans) in a certain area.

A functional and healthy forest helps to regulate air quality by producing oxygen and absorbing carbon besides safeguarding watershed; while wild plants provide valuable insights into and are a source for medical science; and animal and insect species are natural pollinators that ensure the cycle of nature’s food chain remains intact.  The extinction of any flora or fauna species will break the food chain and disrupt the ecosystem. 

To connect the Central Forest Spine Landscape, there are few ways to contribute to it. Among them is forest gazettement to become a Permanent Forest Reserve, tree planting at the critical areas and providing an infrastructure for the wild animal to cross over from one forest to another in a safe manner.

Ecological corridors are conservation areas for biodiversity, particularly for wildlife and where primary and secondary linkages are identified to connect significant forest complexes or forest islands. 

Primary Linkages are areas that have been identified as crucial to the re-establishment of forest connectivity to achieve the main Central Forest Spine link. These are inevitably located between the most important blocks of the forests, catering for the movement of large mammals. Hence, primary linkages are normally linear corridors that are made of unbroken stretches of forested habitats connecting forest islands. 

Secondary linkages are complementary to the primary linkages. These are areas that are unfeasible to create a primary linkage due to physical, land use, biological and socio-economic constraints but which are still important to maintain some level of connectivity between forests. Secondary linkages are usually stepping stones, which are patches of suitable habitats, and are meant to be used by small animals, birds and insects.

According to United Nations Development Programme,

a) Ecosystem refers to a dynamic complex of plant, animal and microorganism communities and their nonliving environment interacting as a functional unit. 

b) Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. These include provisioning services such as food, water, timber, and fibre; regulating services that affect climate, floods, disease, wastes, and water quality; cultural services that provide recreational, aesthetic, and spiritual benefits; and supporting services such as soil formation, photosynthesis and nutrient cycling.

The quantity of carbon contained in a ‘pool’, meaning a reservoir or system which can cumulate or release carbon (source: FAO Forestry)

A viaduct is a green infrastructure that connects fragmented wildlife habitats

A Wildlife crossing is a structure that allows wild animals to cross over human-made infrastructure safely. It comes in many forms and can be both overpasses (or green bridges) or a viaduct. Although they come in different shapes and sizes, all of them serve the same purposes.

Yes. Malaysia is a rapidly developing country. However the wildlife species are increasingly endangered due to road kills because of the developing infrastructure. Hence, it is important to consider having a viaduct or wildlife crossing that can save many lives of wild animals, especially endangered ones. With frequent patrolling and strict enforcement being applied, it is believed that wildlife crossing and viaducts will contribute to the conservation of endangered species. The viaduct and its surrounding areas need to be managed and monitored to ensure that biodiversity is conserved and protected.

Yes, funds are allocated by the government for the maintenance of viaducts and surveillance is carried out by the related government agencies.

There is an emphasis on ensuring that the Orang Asli and local communities residing in and around the Central Forest Spine are engaged through various projects that focuses on livelihood and their supporting roles in ensuring the CFS is a success, especially by the Improving Connectivity in Central Forest Spine (IC-CFS) Project.

The project expected result can be seen from the Strategic Result Framework that was designed by the Adaptive Management Advisory Panel (AMAP). Among significant results that are expected from this project are;

  • SMART based patrolling system is developed, adopted, implemented, and shared by DWNP, state forestry, state parks and other related stakeholders at target states.
  • Development of The Central Forest Spine Management Plan for each targeted landscape incorporating protocols on biodiversity, ecosystem services, carbon stocks and monitoring.
  • To see an increasing number of household income of indigenous people that were involved in livelihood related projects in the piloted states.
  • A developed guideline for non-consumptive wildlife tourism in the areas with records of  Human-Elephant conflicts that will be piloted in one state.

Connectivity of the forested area will contribute to the balanced ecosystems of the surrounding. In this situation, the rehabilitation and preservation of the area can avoid upcoming impacts on human livelihoods in various aspects such as the functions of these forests as watershed protection, prevention of soil erosion, balancing temperature and avoiding human-wildlife conflicts.

Nevertheless, it benefits as a source of income too: forest-based production, tourism and also educational purposes. In addition, job availability and security for the local community in those areas will increase in the future.

You may support the effort by conserving the wildlife and forest, helping to spread the correct information and awareness about the IC-CFS Project and its initiative through social media. Don’t forget to tag us and use the hashtag #ICCFS #CFSConnect

The extension of the IC-CFS Project is based on the progress or achievement of the deliverable in milestones/targets in each year. Once the project has ended, the continuity and sustainability of the works will still be ongoing until the objectives and goals of Central Forest Spine stated in the National Physical Plan are met. The achievements of the Project will be included under CFS in managing and conserving biodiversity in all the ecological corridors.

Central Forest Spine is a plan and program to ensure the Environmentally Sensitive Areas are managed and conserved to meet the nation’s aspirations. At the CFS level, many agencies under the federal government are working together to achieve the goals according to the National Physical Plan.

IC-CFS on the other hand is a project financed by the Global Environment Fund and United Nation Development Programme where its function is to support the CFS project in 3 states namely Perak, Pahang and Johor. The project has its outcome and output derived from the Strategic Result Framework, and it has to be conducted/implemented at these targeted states. Overall, the IC-CFS project is supporting the CFS Master Plan.

The project objective is to increase federal and state-level capacity to execute the CFS Master Plan through the implementation of sustainable forest landscape management plans in three pilot sites, financed sustainably through diversification and increased allocation of funds for conservation. It is designed to remove the barriers to the establishment of a landscape approach to biodiversity management.

This project supports the CFS Master Plan which aims to enhance the connectivity of the major forest landscape. In doing so, there is greater mobility of wildlife and dispersal patterns of forest species. Connectivity enhances access of wildlife to food and other resources creating a healthier environment to support a breeding population. It also reduces edge effects which can reduce the micro-environment for forest health due to fragmentation such as wind speed, humidity, temperature, and predator’s populations.

For now, the project is not structured to receive direct donations as it is a GEF funded project. However, there are funds set up for conservation which are the Ministry (KeTSA) or with our collaborating agencies. An example will be the National Conservation Trust Fund. However, we do welcome collaborations from any organisation.

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Email :  [email protected]

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