Our Background

The Improving Connectivity in the Central Forest Spine (IC-CFS) project was established in 2014 with support from United Nations Development (UNDP) and funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The IC-CFS is an integrated project aiming to restore connectivity in three focal forest landscapes known to be rich in biodiversity and is the critical landscape for the Malayan Tiger conservation.

Our initiatives are spearheaded by a network of implementing agencies from the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (KETSA), Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia (FDPM), Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP), Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) and State Forestry Departments. We drive integrated coalitions with non-governmental organisations, businesses and communities to stir change on the local environmental landscape. Our team consists of bright intellectuals ready to take on the challenge of conserving Malaysia’s green gem.

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Our History

Our beginning sprouted from the continuous efforts of the Malaysian Government in conserving the green lungs of Peninsular Malaysia


Central Forest Spine

The conception of the Central Forest Spine in the 1st National Physical Plan


CFS Master Plan

Identification of the Ecological Linkages by the CFS Master Plan within the Central Forest Spine


Improving Connectivity in the CFS Project (IC-CFS)

The conception of the IC-CFS with granted funds from GEF supported by the UNDP with a goal to secure critical wildlife habitats, conserve biodiversity and carbon stocks and maintain the continuous flow of multiple ecosystem services in the CFS landscape.

Our Strategic Efforts

Our belief lies in the shared benefits of the forest for all – trees, animals and people included. It is why connectivity between and beyond these forest complexes are crucial. We do more than connecting the physical gaps between the forests. Our work touches every aspect of the forest, the same way it affects every part of our life. Guided by the Strategic Results Framework, the initiatives under this project are classified into five key aspects:

Implementation of sustainable land use and forest management that support and preserve its biodiversity and ecosystem services.

Empowerment of local officials in monitoring, intelligence gathering and reducing wildlife crimes.

Uplifting livelihoods and introducing residents with alternative incomes and authority to protect their homeland.

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Diversifications of resources for sustainable fundings of the CFS conservation.

Capacity building for effective institutional integration of the CFS at state and district levels.

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The Main Forest Complexes We Protect

All three of our pilot forest landscapes are identified as critical areas which are priority linkages in the Central Forest Spine Master Plan (CFSMP). These locations are also crucial tiger conservation sites identified in the National Tiger Action Plan (NTCAP). Learn more about the unique profiles of these landscapes and why they matter.

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Belum - Temenggor Forest Landscape

The Belum-Temengor Forest Complex is located in Perak and borders Thailand. The forest complex of 280,000 hectares is over four times the size of Singapore and is the second-largest protected forest area after Taman Negara.

Known for its spectacular plants, birds and mammals – housing over 3000 plant species (many unique to the area) and 185 species of birds – it is also recognised as Malaysia’s second-largest tiger priority site. Additionally, this landscape is known to be a regular passageway for herds of elephants.

Only Orang Asli compromising of two tribes, the Jahai and Temiar live within this landscape. They usually forage the forest for food, medicines, and other daily needs. Dozens of villages are known to reside within and nearby this landscape with little accessibility to developments and commercialisations. Most of them rely on small agriculture to sustain their needs and depend on rubber cultivation for a steady income.

Greater Taman Negara Forest Landscape

Spanning across Pahang, Kelantan and Terengganu with an area of 434,300 hectares, this landscape is the largest protected area in Peninsular Malaysia. 

It is the only site with scientific baseline studies done on the tiger population and its habitats, making it a significant conservation area for the Malayan Tigers. About 70 – 112 tigers were found here in a survey done in 2004. A focal site to this complex is the Sungai Yu tiger corridor. It is the last critical linkage between the Greater Taman Negara forest complex and the Banjaran Titiwangsa main range complex and is a priority corridor under the NTCAP programme. There are three viaducts built here to allow the movement of wildlife across the road. 

A total of 9,644 people involved in a broad range of livelihood activities reside here, within the 18 Malay villages in the Sungai Yu corridor. They are either self-employed as farmers or work in the private and public sectors. While 50-150 indigenous families reside in deeper parts of the corridor with direct activity with forest. They harvest for food, medicine and gather products such as rattan, Pandan leaves and more for sustenance and as merchandise to be sold to tourists.

Endau - Rompin Forest Landscape

Sitting on the border of Pahang and Johor, this landscape is known for its headwaters of Sungai Endau. With an area of 360,100 hectares, the landscape contains a mix of lowland and hill dipterocarp forest (family of hardwood, tropical trees native to Malaysian forest) that is uniquely similar to the coastal vegetation in Borneo.

It is the home to large epiphytes such as the Pandan leaves – found only in Johor – and large mammals such as elephants, tapirs and tigers. It is also the only area that has a population of bearded pigs. The southern part of the landscape is recognised as a crucial zone for tiger habitats and as a corridor for elephant movements between nearby forest complexes. 

There are three Orang Asli Settlements located within the complex’s primary linkage. These communities claim the landscape as their Native Customary Right and sustain a livelihood of fruit orchards and rubber trees cultivated as part of the RISDA development project. Some of them still rely on the forest for rattan, vegetables, plant shoots, tubers and medicinal plants. They also fish in the rivers.